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> FOCUS ILLUMINATION WITH A BRAIN
to zones, set up schedules and control profiles, create users/
access levels, and calibrate sensors. The operator can change any
of this during the system’s life. Depending on the system, it can
provide service alerts and alarms, and it can record energy use at
designated intervals and display it for analysis. The system operator accesses the server using a webpage or program.
A control zone is where a lighting control governs one or more
lamps or luminaires. Granularity refers to how detailed that
zoning is; the smaller the zones, the more flexible the system is,
which can translate to higher energy savings and user satisfaction. By making each luminaire addressable, intelligent systems
facilitate granular zoning where useful. Because all controls are
connected through a low-voltage wiring bus or wireless network,
it is economical to layer control strategies on the same devices.
The ultimate in control responsiveness is for each luminaire
to be addressable; to be installed with a dedicated occupancy and
photosensor; and to be assigned to groups for scheduling, task
tuning, demand response and basic manual control. However,
this level of detail is not always needed. For example, in response
to daylight, a photosensor could be used to dim luminaires to a
certain level based on their proximity to a window. The luminaire
layout, notably the density of luminaires used, can greatly affect
control zoning with dedicated occupancy and photosensors.
After relating lighting and controls within control zones, we
define the controls’ behavior, or sequence of operations. This
requires a lighting control narrative that covers behavior under
typical conditions, including all settings. In turn, this document
provides a commissioning and system maintenance road map.
Once the desired operations sequence is defined, it is typically
programmed into the control system using software. Time
scheduling can be implemented using weekly calendars that
also allow daily, monthly and yearly views. These time sched-
ules also provide the framework for developing control profiles.
The designer selects a block of time and assigns default or cus-
tom behaviors to the control system during those times using
provided variables. These variables cover occupancy sensors
(time delays, sensitivity, fade rates, etc.), daylight harvesting
(dead-band zones, time delays, fade rates, etc.), manual over-
ride logic and so on. As systems vary in number of variables,
the designer should choose one that allows satisfaction of all
control narrative elements. Due to the sophisticated custom
programs that may be produced, the system should provide a
means of regularly backing up the program and all other data.
The software’s interface typically displays energy use in kilowatt-hours in various time increments (e.g., day), near real-time
luminaire status (e.g., dimmed level), alarms and error messages,
and demand response/demand reduction condition. Not all display instantaneous power (k W). Increasingly, software displays
information about other operating parameters, such as temperature and occupancy. Most software can import floor plans and
overlay them with luminaires and control devices; these floor
plans are typically used to display information, though, in some
cases, they can also be used to create control zones.
Some systems automatically send notifications about
detected problems, which may include daily reports of equipment requiring service or replacement (e.g., failed lamps). These
systems typically allow multiple recipients who can be assigned
to receive different types of notifications. In addition, different
users can be assigned different levels of access to control system functions. For example, the system administrator must have
access to everything. Meanwhile, in a multitenant building, occupants may be given access to their lighting.
Documentation and commissioning
Construction documentation should include control schedules,
indicating which lighting and control devices reside in each
zone; a control narrative; and wiring diagrams. Because the
topology and wiring methods for many new systems are different than the existing topology and wiring in many buildings,
the installing contractor may wish to obtain samples of certain
equipment to become familiar with it.
After installation, the system must be commissioned. The
process typically includes the following steps. Energize the lighting system and verify that all wiring and system components are
properly installed and powered, without any faults. Create zones
using the software, discover all components in the system, assign
lighting to the zones, and create control profiles and schedules
for each zone. Calibrate the sensors. Identify and correct any
faults in the system. Verify all software features are working.
The manufacturer should then provide training to the
owner’s personnel. All documentation, such as operating and
maintenance manuals, should be turned over to the owner.
Intelligent lighting control changes lighting as we know it
from fixed, dumb systems into highly flexible, responsive and
controllable systems. It will continue to gain in popularity as
energy codes become increasingly complex and LED lighting
becomes more common.
DILOUIE, L.C., a lighting industry journalist, analyst and
marketing consultant, is principal of ZING Communications. He can
be reached at www.zinginc.com. I M
Eaton’s Fifth Light system enables users to define individual
devices into control zones for scheduling, control, monitoring